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Libertas and Harro Schulze-Boysen, members of the Berlin Spy Network

The Red Orchestra was the name given by Germany to the Soviet espionage ring in most of Nazi-occupied Europe. It had extensive circles of spies in many European countries including Belgium, Germany, France, and Switzerland.

The group was well established by the mid 1930s. The name Red Orchestra comes from the usage of the word "pianist" which was a code word for radio operator. The main leader of the group until his arrest was known as the Grand Chef and his actual name was Leopold Trepper, he was a Polish Jew.[1]


  1. Tarrant, V.E. The Red Orchestra:The Soviet Spy Network inside Nazi Europe. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1996)

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