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The P-51 Mustang was a single seat fighter aircraft used by the United States. The first version of the P-51 Mustang was the P-51A, which had a liquid-cooled, Allison V-1710-81 Engine capable of propelling the Mustang at speeds of up to 627.6 km/h at about 6096 meters. The P-51A had a three bladed propeller and an armament of four .50 M2 Machine Guns. Although, the P-51A could carry a 453.5 kg bomb.
In April 1940 the British Air Purchasing Commission concluded with 'Dutch' Kindelberger, chairman of North American Aviation an agreement for the design and development of a completly new fighter fot the RAF, to be completed within 120 days![N 1] Designed and built within 117 days - but not flown for another six weeks due to delays in receipt of the Alison V1710 engine[N 2] - this silver prototype was the start of the most successful fighter programme in history, with North American Aviation starting to collect material and produce tooling as early as June 1941, while the beginning of the production line was already in place when the initial order for 320 was placed in September.
When North American Aviation had first initiated development of the new fighter, as the NA-73, USAAF fighter policy hinged mainly on the P-38 Lightning and the P-47 Thunderbolt, leaving little official interest in the Mustang. The only stipulation from the US authorities was that, in the event of the Mustang entering production, North American should deliver two examples without charge to the USAAF for evaluation. The first production example - serial number AG345 - was retained by North American Aviation for flight development, while the fifth - serial 41-038 - and tenth - 41-039 - examples were delivered to Wright Field as XP-51s
Starting with AG346, which arrived in the UK in November 1941, the RAF recieved 620 Mustang I, 150 IA and 50 II, while the United States Army, following trials with the XP-51s, adopted the type with 500 A-36A and 350 P-51A. In 1942 the airframe was matched with the Rolls Royce Merlin engine, yielding the P-51B, bulged hood C (Mustang III) and teardrop canopy D (Mustang IV), later C and all D models having six 0.5in guns and a dorsal fin. The final versions were the K (different propeller) and the better shaped lighter H. Total production of all versions was 15,586.
Mustang and P-51 variants served mainly in Europe, their primary mission being the almost incredible one of flying all the way from British bases to targets of the 8th Air Force deep in Germany - Berlin and beyond - escorting heavies, and gradually establishing Allied air superiority over the heart of Germany. However, some P-51s also served in the Far East, with the 311st Fighter Group of Tenth Air force introducing the A-36A/P-51A to the CBI Area in October 1943. They were soon joined by P-51B/Cs of the 1st and 2nd Air Commando and the 23rd Fighter Group, which were primarily employed on strafing and ground attack missions, including a bombing raid against Hong Kong on 8 December 1944. In early 1945 the 15th fighter Group of the Seventh Air Force also used Mustangs, arriving on Iwo Jima's South field on 6 March 1945 with their P-51Ds.
Mustangs were also used for tactical reconnaissance. Early RAF Mustang I aircraft were fitted with an F.24 camera mounted obliquely behind the pilot's seat. The USAAF followed the RAF example by fitting a pair of K-24 cameras to fifty seven examples of the P-51 as the F(Foto)-6A, followed by thirty five F-6Bs converted from P-51As, and 136 P-51Ds converted into F-6Ds.
Ten P-51Ds were converted to TP-51D two seater standard, with relocated radio equipment and a second seat with full controls under the standard bubble canopy. One was subsequently used as a high speed observation post to allow General Dwight D. Eisenhower to inspect the Normandy Beachheads in June 1944.
Royal Air ForceEdit
RAF Squadrons Appendix 3
P-51A - Mustang IEdit
2, 4, 14, 16, 36, 63, 168, 169, 170, 171, 225, 231, 234, 249, 250, 260, 306, 309, 400, 414, 430, 516, 587, 613.
2, 225, 268.
P-51B/C - Mustang IIIEdit
19, 64, 65, 112, 118, 122, 126, 129, 165, 213, 234, 249, 250, 260, 306, 306, 315, 316, 441, 442, 450, 541.
P-51D - Mustang IVEdit
19, 64, 65, 112, 122, 126, 154, 213, 234, 249, 250, 260, 303, 611.
United States Army Air ForceEdit
354th Fighter Group, comprising the 353rd, 355th and 356th Fighter Squadrons.[N 3]
- ↑ This was in response to the BAPC's original request that NAA build examples of the Curtiss P-40 Warhawk under licence, prompting Kindberger to declare that NAA could build a much better fighter of their own design.
- ↑ According to Michael O'Leary's book USAAF Fighters of WW2, delivery of the engine was delayed for 20 days
- ↑ Adopted the name 'The Pioneers', as they were the first unit to take the P-51B into front line combat
- ↑ http://www.wwiivehicles.com/usa/aircraft/fighter/north-american-p-51-a-mustang.asp
- ↑ O'Leary, Michael. Pages 281-282.
- ↑ O'Leary, Michael. Page 283.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Gunston, Bill.
- ↑ World Aircraft Information Files - World Military Aircraft. File 231 Sheet 2 (North American P-51 Mustang:Early Development).
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Green, William.
- ↑ World Aircraft Information Files - World Military Aircraft. File 231 Sheet 15 (North American P-51 Mustang:P-51B/C/D Far East ops).
- ↑ World Aircraft Information Files - World Military Aircraft. File 231 Sheet 8 (North American P-51 Mustang:P-51D/K Variant briefing).
- ↑ Jefford, C. G. p 136.
- ↑ World Aircraft Information Files - World Military Aircraft. File 231 Sheet 4.(North American P-51 Mustang:Merlin Mustangs)
- Green, William. Famous Fighters of the Second World War. Purnell Book Services. 1975.
- Gunston, Bill. Illustrated Directory of Fighting Aircraft of World War II. Salamander Books. 1988. ISBN 0-86101-390-5
- Jefford, Wing Commander C. G. RAF Squadrons. Airlife. 1988.
- O'Leary, Michael. USAAF Fighters of WW2. Blandford Press. 1986. ISBN 0-7137-1839-0.
- World Aircraft Information Files Aviation Partwork. Midsummer Books Ltd.