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The Battle of Monte Cassino was a crucial and controversial engagement in the Italian theater in World War II. It was an attempt by the Allies to break through the Gustav Line and take multiple key cities eventually leading to Rome. The battle had a cloud of controversy surrounding it when the Allies feared a 6th century monastery and town were being used by the German defenders. The Allies came to the decision it was necessary to bomb the ancient monastery, but it was later found that no German troops were present in the village at the time. This bombing destroyed the town and monastery and caused multiple civilian casualties. The destroyed town was to later be used as a defensive position by the Germans as the rubble provided suitable cover from bombing and artillery.