It is a rifle round and as such it had a muzzle velocity of about 731.5 m/s. The case was rimless and it was made of brass. It also had a total weight of 11.3 grams and the case length is 58 mm. The entire length of the bullet however is 79.5 mm. The bullet is also 7.8 mm in diameter and it was meant to be used by the Arisaka Type 99 Rifle and the Type 99 LMG. Another cartridge that is extremely similar to the Type 99 Rimless is the British .303 Cartridge.
The 7.7x58mm Arisaka's only variant was the Type 92 Semi-Rimmed Cartridge. Although, there were some versions of the 7.7x58mm Arisaka that were incendiary, armor piercing, and explosive. The Type 92 Semi-Rimmed version was meant to be used in Machine Guns such as the Type 92 Heavy Machine Gun. It was slightly longer overall at 80mm and the case length was 57mm.
The 7.7x58mm Arisaka Cartridge was developed after combat used of the earlier 6.5mm Cartridge in China. The 7.7x58mm Arisaka was adopted in 1939 and was supposed to replace the older cartridge. The 7.7x58mm Arisaka did not replace the older cartridge totally, but it saw use up until the end of WWII.